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When students use checklists as a way to track school tasks they apply gameful approach.  They track their progress and get feedback on their own in a greater detail than grades allow to make mastery easier to notice.  Checklists help to design and execute practice, which eventually helps with grades.

Students should select the “games” they play at school carefully, and the games worth playing they should make into good games (gg).  Good games aren’t played for the win, they are played because we want to play a well played game.  The grade is no longer the goal.


Atkinson, J. (1950). Studies in Projective Measurement of Achievement Motivation. University of Michigan Microfilms.

Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (Eds.), (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior : an introduction to theory and research. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub.

Pink, D. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.

Other resources:
“Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics”

“The average human attention span in 2000 was 12 seconds, but by 2013 it was only 8 seconds (1 second shorter than a goldfish!). ”

Classroom Response Systems & PollEverywhere.com

Octalysis: Gamification Framework by Yu-kai Chou


Player types by Andrzej Marczewski:
Marczewski, A. (2015). User Types. In Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Gamification, Game Thinking and Motivational Design (1st ed., pp. 65-80). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Scot Osterweil, Research Director for the MIT Comparative Media Studies Program, on the potential to influence social change with technologies that are improving STEM education: